Domain Name System(DNS) is a hostname for IP address translation service. DNS is a distributed database implemented in a hierarchy of name servers. It is an application layer protocol for message exchange between clients and servers. It is required for the functioning of the Internet.

Requirement

Every host is identified by the IP address but remembering numbers is very difficult for people also the IP addresses are not static therefore a mapping is required to change the domain name to the IP address. So DNS is used to convert the domain name of the websites to their numerical IP address. 

Domain

 There are various kinds of DOMAIN:

DNS Types

DNS Types

  1. Generic domains: .com(commercial), .edu(educational), .mil(military), .org(nonprofit organization), .net(similar to commercial) all these are generic domains.
  2. Country domain: .in (India) .us .uk
  3. Inverse domain: if we want to know what is the domain name of the website. Ip to domain name mapping. So DNS can provide both the mapping for example to find the IP addresses of geeksforgeeks.org then we have to type 

nslookup www.geeksforgeeks.org

Organization of Domain

It is very difficult to find out the IP address associated with a website because there are millions of websites and with all those websites we should be able to generate the IP address immediately, there should not be a lot of delays for that to happen organization of the database is very important.

Root DNS Server

Root DNS Server

  • DNS record: Domain name, IP address what is the validity?? what is the time to live ?? and all the information related to that domain name. These records are stored in a tree-like structure. 
  • Namespace: Set of possible names, flat or hierarchical. The naming system maintains a collection of bindings of names to values – given a name, a resolution mechanism returns the corresponding value.
  • Name server: It is an implementation of the resolution mechanism. DNS (Domain Name System) = Name service in Internet – A zone is an administrative unit, and a domain is a subtree. 

Name-to-Address Resolution

The host requests the DNS name server to resolve the domain name. And the name server returns the IP address corresponding to that domain name to the host so that the host can future connect to that IP address. 

Name-to-Address Resolution

Name-to-Address Resolution

  • Hierarchy of Name Servers Root name servers: It is contacted by name servers that can not resolve the name. It contacts the authoritative name server if name mapping is not known. It then gets the mapping and returns the IP address to the host. 
  • Top-level domain (TLD) server: It is responsible for com, org, edu, etc, and all top-level country domains like uk, fr, ca, in, etc. They have info about authoritative domain servers and know the names and IP addresses of each authoritative name server for the second-level domains. 
  • Authoritative name servers are the organization’s DNS servers, providing authoritative hostnames to IP mapping for organization servers. It can be maintained by an organization or service provider. In order to reach cse.dtu.in we have to ask the root DNS server, then it will point out to the top-level domain server and then to the authoritative domain name server which actually contains the IP address. So the authoritative domain server will return the associative IP address.

Domain Name Server

The client machine sends a request to the local name server, which, if the root does not find the address in its database, sends a request to the root name server, which in turn, will route the query to a top-level domain (TLD) or authoritative name server. The root name server can also contain some hostName to IP address mappings. The Top-level domain (TLD) server always knows who the authoritative name server is. So finally the IP address is returned to the local name server which in turn returns the IP address to the host.

Domain Name Server

Domain Name Server

Working of DNS

The working of DNS starts with converting a hostname into an IP Address. A domain name serves as a distinctive identification for a website. It is used in place of an IP address to make it simpler for consumers to visit websites. Domain Name System works by executing the database whose work is to store the name of hosts which are available on the Internet. The top-level domain server stores address information for top-level domains such as .com and .net, .org, and so on. If the Client sends the request, then the DNS resolver sends a request to DNS Server to fetch the IP Address. In case, when it does not contain that particular IP Address with a hostname, it forwards the request to another DNS Server. When IP Address has arrived at the resolver, it completes the request over Internet Protocol.

By Bao Vo

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